Downcycling is the recycling of a material into a material of lesser quality. The terms downcycle and downcycling were first used by Reiner Pilz of Pilz GmbH and Thornton Kay of Salvo Llp in 1993, along with the terms upcycle and upcycling. This term was popularized by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in their 2002…


Global Warming Potentials (GWP) are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing of one kilogramme of greenhouse gas emitted to the atmosphere to that from one kilogramme of carbon dioxide over a period of time (e.g. 100 years).